Episode 11 - The Glomerulus & Glomerular filtration rate

The Glomerulus (meaning ball of yarn) is a capillary network in the kidneys that decides what gets filtered from the blood into urine.Our kidneys need to filter 120mL per minute (or 180L per day) of blood in order to maintain the appropriate amount of salts, pH, waste, and other components in the blood. If this membrane is damaged or disrupted, patient health can rapidly decline.
What is the glomerulus? How does it work? How can it be damaged? What are some diseases of the glomerulus?